backed by the highest possible ratings for financial strength. new york life. the company you ep. tonight on "nightline," reunited. jaycee lee dugard's family reveals the emotional details of her return after an 18-year nightmare in the hands of phillip garrido. how did she raise two daughters while in captivity? and miami vice. more than 70 sex offenders, awe forced to live under one bridge in miami. is this the answer? you may not want them living next door, but should they really end up here? plus, the myth of praise.
inside the experiment that shows that praising your kids can actually harm them. so what should owe -- you tell your child? captions paid for by abc, inc. good evening, i'm cynthia mcfadden. we begin with a kidnapping of jaycee lee dugard. miraculously a joyful family reunion 18 years later and that moment was described for the first time a week after dugard and the two daughters she had in captivity were freed from her captor, phillip garrido and his wife. >> her oldest daughter is finally home. >> it was that dina dugard the sister of jaycee dugard's mother, terry probyn, who
detailed the days after she was reunited with her family after 18 years. as they reconnected in a secluded location. >> i was with them until recently. we spent time sharing memories and stories and getting to know each other again. jaycee remembers all of us. she is especially enjoying getting to know her little sister who was just a baby when jaycee was taken. we have spent time sitting quietly, taking pleasure in each other's company. >> she praised her niece for managing to raise her two daughters while in captivity. >> jaycee is a remarkable young woman who has raised two beautiful daughters. they are clever, articulate, curious girls who have a bright future ahead of them. although they have no formal education, they are certainly educated. jaycee did a truly amazing job with the limited resources and education that she herself had. and we are so proud of her.
>> proud and thankful for the family that so many years later is finally whole again. the dugard kidnapping has focused new attention on the delicate challenge of monitoring sex offenders. it's created an unseemly colony and a controversy, as jeffrey kofman now reports. >> oh, miami. beaches, beauty, bronze. okay, so the condos may not be worth a million dollars anymore, but the view is. zip across the causeway and it's as if you're leaving your troubled behind, unless you happen to be going along the julia tuttle causeway. what are those tents doing along the water's edge? hello? hello?
there is a distinctly permanent feeling to this scruffy encampment and it's clear many of them don't want anything to do with inquisitive reporters. what did you do that you ended up here? >> [ inaudible ]. >> same thing everybody else did. okay. thanks. what they did made them pariahs. they are sex offenders, a makeshift colony of 71 outcasts living here under the bridge because the laws say if they go anywhere else they will be sent back to jail. so you've got this million dollar view. >> it's not a million dollar view to me. >> what is it? >> it's a shame on miami to me. >> one of the few men here willing to talk, he is homer barkley. a seemingly harmless guy. until you learn he was sent to prison for ten years for attempted sexual assault on a 10-year-old girl. he first came here in january 2008. that's when he was released on
probation. >> i got to the probation officer, he confirmed to me that i had to come and live up under the julia tuttle causeway and that i had to go to the driver's license and put it there. >> do you have it on your driver's license? do you have it here? what does it say? >> julia tuttle causeway. your home address? can you not live in liberty city? >> i can't based on the ders. >> the ordinance. you quickly learn that it's all about the ordinance, and about a web of overlapping laws. in 2005, miami-dade county implemented residency restrictions that breard edgier ostreex sffenders from living within 2,500 feet of schools. and there's a buffer around the schools and parksnd playgrounds and for school bus stops. there are 24 cities within the
county that have their own residency restrictions for sex offenders. this is miami-dade county and this is what it looks like when you add overlapping circles of no go zones. >> this is my life right here. this is my life. as you see it's so hard. i have to live here. so hard in the tent. >> what it's like with the noise? >> it's like bumblebees in your head. >> what your television can't convey is the stench. a suffocating cocktail of sewage and trash. there's no sanitation here, no running water. like most of the men here, homer has to wear a tracking device. >> they told me i have to be here from 6:00 p.m. till 7:00 a.m. in the morning. >> do you feel like you're being punished a second time? >> of course i do. i did all that time, why am i
still here, why am i being punished? i want my life back. i deserve a second chance at life. >> meet ron book, a man who's not sure about second chances. the multimillion dollar florida lobbyist is the architect of the red -- predator laws. he learned that the nanny he and his wife hired was physically and sexually abusing their daughter and she went to jail and he went to lobby to make pariahs of all sexual offenders. he succeeded. there's a perception that the law is so onerous that it leaves nowhere realistic for the men to live. is that a fair perception? >> i think it's fair to have that discussion and debate.
yes, it's difficult. nobody said that somebody exiting the prison system has a right to dictate where they live. >> it is my sense that the fundamental problem here is that nobody wants to defend sex offender. >> i think most people watching this will say so be it. what they did was terrible. >> i have a daughter who was molested and raped. i sleep very comfortably at night knowing that we have made our community safer. >> county commissioner pepe az sleeps well at night, knowing he helped to pass the toughest sexual offender laws in the country. >> that law has saved to me in my opinion a lot of people. >> he's not proud of the camp on the causeway. >> that's not a way for people to live, and one of the bridges that goes to one of the main
tourist areas in miami beach. >> behe has no -- but he has no interest in changing the law. do you think there are sufficient places where these men can live legally in the county? >> absolutely. >> that is not what the american civil liberties found. they have released a study of available, affordable housing for sex offenders in miami-dade county. just 15 units were available to sex offenders at a rent of $1,000 a month. so who was in charge of helping the sex offenders find a proper home? meet ron book, the multimillionaire lobbyist who is the head of the homeless trust. no, don't trust your tv set. yet, he pushed for the laws that pushed predators under the bridge and he's the man in charge of finding them a proper home. >> over the last weeks, i'm
still sort of optimistic that if we keep chasing sites we're gointo find flee or four. >> ron book knows some people think his two rules are irreconcilable. >> i wear these two hats in this particular case they have gone into one another. i don't want to use the word colliding but they have run into one another. >> the american civil liberties union has filed a motion, asking that the 1,000 foot law be allowed to stand. ron book disagrees. >> look, i've not been bashfu about my feelings about people who commit offenses against children. everyone knows that. i'm not a monster, i'm a human being. i have family like you've got family. i've g family like they've got family. i don't deserve this, man. if you felt like these girls did something so gross then you
should have sentenced them to livment you don't cast them out and put them out and surrounded by the ocean. this is not right. >> for "nightline," i'm jeffrey kofman on the julia tuttle causeway. jeffrey kofman reporting. when we come back, to praise or not to praise. that's the question. ex crime in new york city has dropped 27% since 2001. response times in madrid... ...have been cut by 25%. cities all over the world are getting smarter... ...and safer. every time an emergency happens... ...data is generated. smarter cities fight crime... fires... flu outbreaks... ...by capturing the data. detecting the patterns. sharing it across departments. ...responding to emergencies... ...even preventing them. making cities safer. that's what i'm working on. i'm an ibmer. let's build a smarter planet.
we turn now to the challenge of raising children. and new evidence that the approach many of us have taken may not be achieving the desired effect. the vast majority of parents in amera, in fact nearly nine out of ten, believe that praise is good for kids, that helps them build self-esteem. but guess what the experts now say. praise may limit what your children achieve. >> who hasn't been this parent?
gushing platitudes like you're so smart. or you play great at every turn. >> good, good. >> po bronson who writes about child rearing said he's guilty, but not alone. >> 85% of american parents believe it's important to tell their child they're smart. why? we want it to be an angel on their shoulder, riding along with them to give them confidence that when they approach challenges their parents are there to remind them, you're smart, you have what it takes, you can do this. >> bronson said he tried to reform and so should you. he says a decade of ground breaking research says kids can learn to lose self-confidence and not gain it and actually perform worse in school, not better. >> kids become fixated on maintaining the image of being
smart. they choose teachers and projects where they know they can get an a. >> stanford university professor carol dweck has tested thousands of elementary school kids across the country, with the effect of craze on performance. it is a baser for a chapter in the book. so we asked her to show us what she learned. >> here. >> watch what happens when these two, 9-year-old mary and 10-year-old jameson, are given a set of i.q. puzzle. >> it was exactly the same, and mary was praise for intelligence, said you must be very smart. >> you must be really smart. >> and jameson the only thing different about him was he was told you must have worked very hard on these problems. >> you must have worked really hard on the problems. >> if you follow them after that
point, what did we see? mary began obsessing about whether she was smart or not smart. >> what kind of problems do you want to work on next? not so hard -- or problems pretty easy, problems you're pretty good at so you can show you're smart or problems you'll learn from? even though you won't look so smart? >> probably i'm pretty good -- so i can show i'm smart. >> okay. >> i am smart. >> yeah. >> it made her psychologically vulnerable. jameson had the opposite experience. >> problems that i'll learn a lot, even if i don't look so smart. >> he had been praised for his effort and he wasn't afraid of challenges. he said i want to work on the problems that i will learn a lot from, even if i don't look smart. >> it's crucial that a child learn not to be afraid of challenges. the latest research know tells us that mental challenges are what build intelligence. it has an actual physical effect on the brain.
>> so every time you challenge your brain, new connections are forming between neurons. >> but it doesn't happen if i>>re not chal ourself. >> it only happens by p>>rofet ssor dweck has develod pbrstrate to kids that e brain is like a usmcle, that you can build by exercising it. >> it's a different kind of exercise you do for your brain, exploring new information, practicing skills and learning new concepts. >> that's not the only reason that the right kind of praise is important. it influences how kids do when they face adversity. look what happens next when they're given a difficult task. mary scores eight right and the researcher gives both a discouraging report and mary starts to lose her confidence. >> there are other people in my class that are smarter than me too. >> jameson seems less flustered. though he actually didn't do as
well as mary. >> you only got three right on these. >> yeah. >> but undaunted he moves on to the third test and nails it. >> oka you got nine. >> this one was easier. >> the surprise is mary, who remember had done twice as well as jameson on the previous test, but ends up doing worse than him on a final and easier test. >> when she was given a test attend she crumbled and started to have trouble. >> the power of one line of praise.e come back, an experimet that holds up a surprising mirror to american mothers. here to tell a story. 'm my parents all smoked. my grandparents smoked. i've been a long-time smoker. you know, discouragement is a big thing in quitting smoking. i'm a guy who had given up quitting.
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we continue now with the ways parental praise can limit a child's development. we were fascinated by a study in which american and chinese mothers were put to the same test with very different results. take a look. >> that's good. >> american parents have a hard time giving bad news to their kids. at least that's the result of research conducted by florie ng, with children and their mothers in illinois and hong kong. the kids are all given a test. at a mid break, each of their mothers is told her child had done poorly. whether the child had or not. each mother is then allowed five minutes alone with her child. >> the american moms walked into the room with their child and never mentions their score on the test. >> you don't have to -- we can take it home. because we're going to go to mcdonald's. >> and basically, we saw them ignoring completely ignoring
their child's failure. not willing to help them. >> she said you did really well on this test. >> if anything, praising them for their intelligence or don't worry, you're going to do great. >> i only missed two out of -- the first session. >> some kids missed more than that. >> the mothers in hong kong by contrast told them their child hadn't done very well, and said you didn't concentrate, let's sit down and let's work through the test. >> and what happened when they continued the test? >> they then took another test identical. the american kids because they had a little bit of practice did better, but the chinese kids did 33% better, a whopping jump in their performance. right after this little instruction period with their mothers.
>> so our idea that anything short of absolute loving licking praise is cruel is just not proven out. >> it's helpful to see that as american parents, we can be loving and affectionate and supportive, at the same time, as we are directing our child's attention to better strategies to improve and to learn. >> better do it right. >> bronson says no parent is perfect, but if you can keep the wrong praise to a minimum under 25% he says you're on the right track. he says even for him it's not easy. >> when i first read carol's research, i realized i was doing it all wrong. it wasn't so easy to stop. the first day for me, i stopped at home telling my children they were so smart and so great. but we'd go out to the school events and i'd hear all the other parents praising their
children. i would fall off the wagon around other parents. the praise junkie wasn't my child, it was me. >> but there's no limit on one kind on support. something that parents can repeat and repeat. >> telling your child you love them is something else. and you can tell your child you love them all you want. >> absolutely. bronson's book "nurtureshock" is available in bookstores now. we'll be rightack.